What is an Indemnity Insurance Plan In 2023


Indemnity insurance plans are a traditional type of health insurance coverage that help pay for medical expenses. With an indemnity plan, you can visit any doctor or hospital you want without needing a referral. These plans also fully reimburse you for covered services, up to the limits of your policy.

Indemnity plans give you a lot of choice and flexibility over your healthcare. However, they also come with higher out-of-pocket costs compared to other types of plans like HMOs or PPOs. You may need to pay a deductible and coinsurance for services. There are also no copays with indemnity plans – you pay the full amount for care until you hit your deductible.

Understanding how indemnity insurance works is important when evaluating your health insurance options. This comprehensive guide will explain what an indemnity plan is, the pros and cons, how it differs from other plans, and what to consider when choosing coverage.

We’ll cover topics such as:

  • What is Indemnity Insurance?
  • How Does an Indemnity Plan Work?
  • Pros and Cons of Indemnity Health Insurance
  • Types of Indemnity Plans
  • Indemnity vs PPO vs HMO
  • Factors to Consider When Choosing an Indemnity Plan
  • Is an Indemnity Plan Right for You?

Knowing the details of indemnity health coverage will ensure you select the right plan for your needs and budget. With this guide, you’ll learn the ins and outs of indemnity insurance so you can make an informed decision when choosing healthcare coverage.

What is Indemnity Insurance?

Indemnity health plans are a type of fee-for-service health insurance. With an indemnity plan, you can visit any doctor, hospital or other healthcare provider you want without needing a referral.

The insurance company will reimburse you a percentage of your medical bills, typically 80-90%, after you pay a deductible. This is in contrast to managed care plans like HMOs and PPOs that require you to stay within a network of preferred providers.

Some key things to know about indemnity plans:

  • Freedom of Choice – You can see any licensed doctor or facility. No network restrictions.
  • Out-of-Pocket Costs – You pay a deductible and percentage of costs (coinsurance). Plans cover a portion of expenses.
  • No Referrals – You don’t need permission from a primary care doctor to see specialists.
  • Less Paperwork – No excessive forms or pre-approvals required for services.
  • Yearly Limits – Plans cap the total amount they’ll pay per year, on average $1 million to $2 million.

Indemnity plans offer flexibility in your healthcare. But the tradeoff is you take on more financial responsibility for expenses. They are best for those who can afford higher costs in exchange for choice in their coverage.

How Does an Indemnity Plan Work?

Indemnity plans work differently than managed care plans in several key ways:


You pay a set dollar amount per year before coverage kicks in. For example, with a $1,000 deductible, you pay 100% of costs up to $1,000. After your deductible is met, you start paying coinsurance.


This is your share of costs after meeting the deductible. A common split is 80/20 where the plan pays 80% of expenses, you pay 20%. So if a service is $1,000, you’d pay $200 after meeting the deductible.

Out-of-Pocket Maximum

Plans limit your total expenses per year. Once you hit this amount, the plan covers 100% of additional costs. For 2023, the maximum out-of-pocket is $9,100 for an individual, $18,200 for a family.

No Copays or Network

With indemnity insurance, you don’t pay copays for doctor visits or prescriptions. And you aren’t limited to a network of doctors and facilities – you can see any provider.

Pre-Authorization Not Required

You don’t need approval from the insurance company before getting services, unlike an HMO. As long as it’s a covered benefit, the plan will reimburse you per the policy terms.

Yearly and Lifetime Limits

Plans cap how much they’ll pay per year or over your lifetime. Limits are typically at least $1 million or more per year. Lifetime limits under the Affordable Care Act must be at least $2 million.

In summary, indemnity plans give you flexibility over your care while putting more financial responsibility on you. Understanding how they work helps ensure it’s the right type of coverage for your needs.

Pros and Cons of Indemnity Health Insurance

Indemnity health plans have both advantages and disadvantages to consider when choosing coverage:


Freedom to Choose Doctors

You can visit any licensed doctor or hospital – no network restrictions or needing referrals. This gives you access to a wider range of providers.

No Waiting Periods for Pre-Existing Conditions

Thanks to the ACA, indemnity plans must cover pre-existing conditions without any waiting period.

Coverage for Routine Care

Indemnity insurance covers preventive services like annual physicals, immunizations and cancer screenings without charging a deductible or coinsurance.

Out-of-State Coverage

Your indemnity plan works nationwide. So you can access care when traveling without the hassles of staying in-network.

Simple Claims Process

No pre-authorizations are required before getting care. You simply show your ID card and file a claim later.

No Doctor Limitations

You aren’t assigned a primary care doctor who controls your referrals. Specialists are accessible without pre-approval.


  • Higher Premiums – Monthly costs are typically higher for indemnity insurance compared to other types of plans.
  • High Out-of-Pocket Costs – You pay deductibles, coinsurance and anything above your coverage limits. Expenses can add up fast.
  • No Copays – Copays help make some services more affordable. With indemnity plans, everything goes towards the deductible first.
  • No Catastrophic Protection – There are no out-of-pocket maximums to limit how much you could pay per year. Costs are unlimited.
  • Coordination of Benefits Difficult – If you have two health plans, coordinating coverage and claims reimbursement gets complicated.
  • Paperwork – You have to file claims yourself and wait for reimbursement. The process can be time consuming.

The right pros and cons will depend on your healthcare priorities. Indemnity insurance offers unparalleled choice of providers, but you take on significant financial risk.

How Indemnity Insurance Got Started

Indemnity insurance has its origins in maritime law. For centuries, shipping companies purchased coverage to protect against potential liabilities that could arise from transporting cargo across oceans. These early indemnity policies would reimburse ship owners for covered losses.

After World War II, employers began offering private health insurance plans as an employee benefit. Many companies chose to use an indemnity model to reimburse workers for their medical expenses. Unlike today’s restrictive HMO and PPO plans, indemnity coverage allowed employees the freedom to choose any healthcare provider. This flexibility was valued by workers.

However, as healthcare costs rose exponentially in the 1970s and 1980s, managed care plans like HMOs were introduced to help control spending. The use of provider networks, copays and utilization review helped reduce costs compared to wide-open indemnity plans. As a result, indemnity health insurance declined significantly over subsequent decades in favor of new managed care options.

How Much Does Indemnity Insurance Cost?

Several factors affect how much you’ll pay in premiums for indemnity health insurance. The type and level of coverage you select impacts costs. Plans with lower deductibles and more comprehensive benefits have higher premiums. Your location and age are also taken into account, with plans being more expensive in high-cost areas and for older policyholders.

Lifestyle factors like smoking can increase your premiums as well. People who participate in workplace or association group plans usually pay less than buying individual indemnity coverage. There are several techniques you can use to reduce your indemnity insurance premium costs. Choosing a higher annual deductible is one way to lower monthly costs.

Excluding optional coverages like vision and dental can also decrease premiums. Joining a group plan through an employer or association gives you access to group rates. You may also get discounts for enrolling in automated monthly payments or having multiple policies with the same provider. Maintaining a healthy lifestyle can qualify you for wellness-based premium discounts from some insurers.

Shopping for Indemnity Insurance

When researching indemnity insurance providers, there are several key things to look into regarding the companies. Check their financial strength ratings from agencies like A.M. Best to ensure they are financially stable. Review how long they’ve been in business and their reputation for customer service.

Look at the range of plan options they offer and what types of discounts and benefits are included. When comparing actual indemnity plans, make sure to find out specifics including the monthly premium cost, covered services, deductible and coinsurance amounts, whether there is an out-of-pocket maximum, if any benefits like preventive care are deductible-free, and whether prescription drug coverage is included. This information will allow you to thoroughly evaluate your choices.

Types of Indemnity Plans

There are a few different types of indemnity health insurance plans:

Basic Indemnity Plans

This is a traditional non-managed fee-for-service health plan. You visit any doctor or hospital and file claims for reimbursement.

Comprehensive Plans

A comprehensive indemnity plan covers a wide range of services from hospitalization to medical, surgical, diagnostic and catastrophic care. Coverage levels are typically 70-100%.

Catastrophic Coverage

This barebones option only covers major emergencies and accidents. You pay out-of-pocket for routine medical care and doctor visits. It offers basic protection at low premiums.

Hospital Indemnity

Hospital indemnity insurance only covers inpatient hospitalization and related expenses. All other medical costs are your responsibility.

Accident-Only Plans

As the name suggests, this indemnity-style plan only covers injuries from accidents – not illness or preventive services. It’s an affordable supplemental plan.

The type of indemnity insurance you choose depends on your budget and healthcare needs. Comprehensive plans offer robust coverage while catastrophic or accident-only plans provide basic, low-cost protection.

Indemnity vs PPO vs HMO

How does indemnity insurance compare to PPO and HMO plans? Here’s an overview:

Provider Choice

  • Indemnity – See any doctor or hospital. No network limitations.
  • PPO – Access a network of preferred providers but can also use out-of-network care at higher costs.
  • HMO – Must stay within the HMO’s network of doctors and hospitals or coverage will not apply.


  • Indemnity – Pay deductibles and coinsurance. No copays.
  • PPO – Pay copays for network providers. Deductibles and coinsurance are higher out-of-network.
  • HMO – Copays required for all services. Lower out-of-pocket costs overall.

Referrals for Specialists

  • Indemnity – No referrals needed to see specialists.
  • PPO – May need referrals for network specialists. Out-of-network referrals not needed.
  • HMO – Must get referrals from a primary doctor before seeing most specialists.

Pre-Authorization for Services

  • Indemnity – Pre-approval not required.
  • PPO – May need pre-authorization for major services out of network.
  • HMO – Most services require pre-approval from the plan.

Annual Limits

  • Indemnity – Typically $1 million to unlimited.
  • PPO – Unlimited thanks to the ACA.
  • HMO – Unlimited per ACA regulations.

In summary, indemnity plans offer the most flexibility while HMOs have the lowest out-of-pocket costs. PPOs fall in the middle with access to networks along with some out-of-network coverage.

Factors to Consider When Choosing an Indemnity Plan

If you decide an indemnity plan may be right for your needs, here are some things to consider when selecting specific coverage:

  • Covered Services – Review what services are covered and excluded. Many comprehensive plans cover hospital, preventive, emergency and specialty care.
  • Costs – Compare monthly premiums along with deductibles, coinsurance rates and out-of-pocket maximums to understand your potential costs.
  • Rating – Select an indemnity insurer that is financially sound and reputable. Check the company’s rating from agencies like A.M. Best.
  • Yearly and Lifetime Limits – Make sure the plan’s coverage limits are sufficient for your medical needs. Limits of at least $1 million yearly are recommended.
  • Pre-Existing Conditions – The plan must cover pre-existing conditions without a waiting period due to ACA regulations.
  • Network Availability – Some indemnity plans provide discounts when using in-network providers. Check if your doctors participate.
  • Prescription Drugs – Verify what prescription medications are covered and if the plan uses formularies or tiers that affect costs.

Thoroughly evaluating indemnity plans using these criteria can help you find the right amount of coverage and flexibility for your circumstances. Partner with an insurance broker or agent who can explain terminology and ensure you select the optimal plan.

Is an Indemnity Plan Right for You?

Indemnity health insurance offers valuable flexibility and freedom in your healthcare choices. However, significant out-of-pocket costs mean indemnity plans are not the right fit for everyone’s needs and budget.

In general, an indemnity plan may make sense if you:

  • Are willing to pay higher premiums in exchange for provider choice flexibility
  • Prefer minimal rules and restrictions in your healthcare options
  • Have a trusted doctor you want to continue using who is out-of-network on managed care plans
  • Travel frequently and want seamless nationwide coverage
  • Are financially prepared to pay deductibles and coinsurance out-of-pocket
  • Want simpler claims processing without pre-approvals

On the other hand, if you would rather pay less in premiums and healthcare costs overall, an HMO or PPO that utilizes copays and networks may be a better option.

Analyzing your specific health needs, finances and preferences will help clarify if an indemnity plan is your best choice. If you require significant care, the cost exposure may be prohibitive unless you supplement with a secondary managed care plan. Working with an insurance broker can provide guidance to ensure you select appropriate healthcare coverage.


Indemnity health plans provide versatile coverage and freedom of choice in doctors and hospitals that other insurance plans can’t match. However, with great freedom comes great financial responsibility.

This comprehensive guide outlined how indemnity insurance works, the pros and cons, types of indemnity plans, and how indemnity compares to PPO and HMO plans. We also covered key factors to evaluate when selecting an indemnity policy as well as scenarios where indemnity coverage may or may not be the right fit.

The main highlights about indemnity plans include:

  • You can choose any healthcare provider without network restrictions or referrals required. This gives you access to a wider range of doctors and facilities.
  • There are no copays or pre-authorization required for services. You simply pay out-of-pocket until your deductible is met then coinsurance kicks in.
  • Out-of-pocket costs are higher compared to managed care. You take on more financial risk with unlimited maximums.
  • Options range from comprehensive medical to accident-only coverage. Traditional indemnity and catastrophic plans are most common.
  • Indemnity gives you the flexibility to see specialists freely and use out-of-network providers more seamlessly than PPO and HMO plans.
  • It’s best for healthy individuals who want control over their healthcare choices and have the budget to cover higher costs.

While indemnity plans have advantages, they also have limitations. Make sure to read the fine print to understand coverage exclusions, limits and costs you’ll be responsible for paying. Also consider your health status and financial situation to determine if an indemnity plan aligns with your needs and budget, or if a different type of health insurance is a better choice.

Indemnity fills an important niche in the insurance market by giving individuals control over their healthcare decisions. If you value flexibility and choice over costs, and are comfortable with the financial risk, an indemnity plan could provide the coverage freedom you seek. But make sure to educate yourself on how these plans work and analyze your needs thoroughly when selecting coverage.

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